The Roskamp Institute, located in Tampa, was one of few memory clinics across the United States that participated in a study that tested the effect of NSAIDs on the cognitive ability of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used to decrease inflammation, did not improve the cognitive functions of the Alzheimer’s patients. The Roskamp Institute registered over 400 seniors of at least 70 years of age. Each was required to have at least one relative with AD-like dementia. Two-third of the patients received either Naproxen or Celecoxib, and the remaining received a sugar pill. All were checked on and given memory tests annually for five years. The results showed that Naproxen may be a factor in impairing the memory and other mental functions, but further study is needed to verify if the results are consistent or if they were due to the fact that the patients who did not test as well were already suffering from early stages of dementia. The results for this study, as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT), were published in Archives of Neurology.

For more information about this study, please visit http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18474729.

Wendy Liu

August 3, 2012

 
 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) characterized by two main features in the brain, an extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) into plaques and an intracellular buildup of neurofibrillary tangles made of a protein called tau. In addition, it has also been found that the brains of AD patients are continuously present in inflammatory states.

The neurofibrillary tangles are results of an accumulation in neuronal cells of tau protein that has been hyper-phosphorylated and self-assembled into a new form. The buildup of Aβ is a likely cause for the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s patients.

Inflammation in the brain also has a possible link to the accumulation of Aβ. The Roskamp Institute has found that the binding of CD40 ligand (CD40L) to its receptor CD40 is harmful for AD. This proved to be true in a transgenic mouse model for AD TG2576, as prohibiting the binding of CD40-CD40L lessened Aβ buildup and the neuroinflammation.

In a study published in Brian Research, the Roskamp Institute reported findings that indicated that a decrease in the hyper-phosphorylation of the tau protein is not related to the accumulation of Aβ. A CD40 or CD40L deficiency in the mouse model for AD Tg2576 also decreased the hyper-phosphorylation of the tau protein, which implies that the CD40-CD40L pathway has a direct impact on tau phosphorylation.

These studies and findings indicate that the CD40-CD40L pathway has a direct effect on the two main characteristics of AD, which increases the possibility for it to be targeted in future therapeutic solutions.

 

For more information and updates on Alzheimer’s disease, please visit

http://www.rfdn.org
http://www.roskampinstitute.us
http://www.michaelmullan.us
http://www.michaelmullangroup.com

Wendy Liu

August 3, 2012

 
 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is recognized by the buildup of the protein amyloid beta (Aβ), but many researchers have also found an increase of the molecule CD40L in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. A research group at the Roskamp Institute, headed by Dr. Michael Mullan, found that the stimulation of CD40L increases the levels of Aβ in the cellular models of AD and the stimulation of CD40L of cells that are needed for the defense of the nervous system results in increases of cytokines (pro-inflammatory molecules). GM-SCF, the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulation factor, is a cytokine that is a part of the brain’s inflammation responses. Many previous studies have linked Alzheimer’s disease with increases in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Through their study, which was published in the journal, Cytokine, the Roskamp researchers’ results have indicated that GM-SCF “operates downstream of CD40/CD40L interaction and that GM-CSF modulates Aβ production” (Volmar et al., in press).

For the publication of this study, please visit http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18434187.

For more information and updates on Alzheimer’s disease, please visit

http://www.rfdn.org
http://www.roskampinstitute.us
http://www.michaelmullan.us
http://www.michaelmullangroup.com

Wendy Liu

 
 
Dementia robs individuals of their memory, mental function, and social interaction skills. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a form of dementia that is easily distinguishable from the others. This neurodegenerative disease includes early signs that are consistent with each patient and involves the loss of short term memory. Recently presented information will evaporate after a short period of time for Alzheimer’s patients.

Individuals in the early stages of AD will have a hard time retaining any fresh information presented to them. Forgetting what they talked about on the phone only a few minutes ago or arriving at the grocery store with no recollection of what they planned on purchasing are just simple examples of how AD can impact the daily routine of an individual’s life.

In today’s society, technology is a leading source of knowledge. Computers, televisions, radios, and phones are regularly used to distribute ideas and provide the latest updates about the happenings around the world. Because of this, Alzheimer’s disease patients are at a disadvantage since they lack the ability to store these current events in their memory. An individual’s incapability to remember any updates about current events, such as the presidential election or the Olympics, can be an early sign of the disease and should serve as a trigger for visiting a memory disorder clinic for an evaluation.

The Roskamp Institute, with one location in Sarasota, Florida and one in Tampa, Florida, offers full evaluations for Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of memory loss.

For the original article, please visit http://www.roskampinstitute.us/articles/archives/39.

For more information and updates on Alzheimer’s disease, please visit

http://www.rfdn.org
http://www.roskampinstitute.us
http://www.michaelmullan.us
http://www.michaelmullangroup.com

Wendy Liu

August 2, 2012